At the beginning of the 21st century, offshore production became more complex with each new project, moving into deep waters, and to areas with harsh environments. The design and operation of these new developments were pushing the limits of available multiphase capabilities. At the same time, the demands on efficient risk and cost control increased. The development of LedaFlow started with the objective to give the industry the tool it needed to tackle those new challenges.

Vision

LedaFlow has been and is developed with the vision that it becomes a preferred technology platform and engineering tool for multiphase flow analysis and flow assurance studies.

One license = all functionality

LedaFlow Engineering includes all features needed for the flow assurance and well performance workflow and is routinely applied in all phases of the life cycle of a project.

Thermodynamics
– Constant fluid properties
– Black Oil
– PVT tables
– Composition tracking
– Steam / Water
– Generic single component (with phase change).

Custom fluids
– Inhibitors in all 3 phases
– Drilling muds, tracers, dead oils
– Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids
– Compressible gas.

Rigorous thermal modelling
– 3 energy equations
– Partially and fully buried pipe
– Annulus (symmetric and asymmetric).

Inflow
– Mass and pressure boundaries
– Sources
– Well with IPR definition.

Slugging analysis
– LedaFlow Slug capturing®
– Slug size
– Slug statistics module.

Production chemistry and integrity
– Emulsion modelling
– Corrosion
– Erosion
– Hydrate margins and transportation
– Wax margins and deposition -Sand deposition indicators
– Flow induced pulsation (FLIP)
– Force calculations in bends.

Process equipment
– Separator
– Pig (simple and bypass)
– Pipe heat source
– Flexible pipe wall
– Valves (incl. hydro short and long path)
– Leak
– Gas lift valve
– Controllers
– Multiphase pump
– User defined phase split.

Visualization tools
– 2D plotting
– 3D visualization
– Device/Boundary chart
– Automatic turndown curve generator.

Workflow
– Graphical User Interface
– Well builder
– Excel Add-in
– User preferences
– Parametric and sensitivity study analysis
– Profile tools
– Tuning
– Simulation manager
– Input and output file generator
– Purging tool
– Model change logger
– OLGA to LedaFlow converter
– Integrated scripting environment.

All of this functionality is provided at no extra cost to clients leasing or purchasing LedaFlow. There are no expensive modules to gain additional functionality.

Below are the main features LedaFlow offers to enhance your understanding of what is happening in a production network.

Increased resolution with the multi-field approach

LedaFlow solves the mass balance equations for all nine fields (gas, oil and water in the bulk and two dispersed fields per phase) while momentum and energy equations are solved for the three continuous phases. This detailed approach enables closer matching to laboratory and field data.

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Multifield approach

Advanced thermal modelling

As LedaFlow solves separate energy equations for all three phases, much more accurate information can be determined during stratified flow and during blow down conditions where the temperature of the slower moving liquids at the bottom of a pipe can differ considerably from the gas flowing above. In addition, a buried pipe model provides the user with a heat conduction model from the inner surface of the pipe through to the exterior surface of the soil. This is particularly important for estimating corrosion rates and pipe-wall temperatures, information that is critical for material selection and for hydrate risks prediction.

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Advanced thermal modelling

LedaFlow Slug capturing®: a unique method to predict the initiation and growth of hydrodynamic slugs

LedaFlow uses a Unit Cell Model for modelling terrain and riser induced slugging. It also includes Slug Capturing which is the first commercially available solution to accurately predict hydrodynamic slug behavior without user input. It captures the initiation and growth of waves and hydrodynamic slugs using higher-order numerical methods. The analysis of slugs is facilitated by slug statistics and slug size tools.

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Slug flow modelling

A novel approach for hydrate management with the hydrate transport module

The hydrate transport model calculates the formation and transport of hydrate particles. It is used to evaluate the possibility to operate inside the hydrate risk region by taking into account the effect of inhibitors, the changes in temperature due to the heat of reaction and the effect on fluid properties. This model complements the hydrate management tools which are traditionally used by the industry and which are also available in LedaFlow: hydrate curve configuration, inhibitor injection, electrical heating, hydrate margins calculation, etc.

Wax formation, melting and deposition

The wax deposition module simulates creation, melting and deposition of wax. It is used to determine the pigging frequency required to keep wax deposits under control. The model takes into account the changes in pressure and temperature as well as the effect on fluid properties. This model can be combined with other tools traditionally used for wax risk management studies, e.g. inhibitor injection, electrical heating, wax margin calculations, etc.

Simulate a steam network with the pure steam/water option

Although LedaFlow has been developed for the oil and gas industry, it is also applied for simulating networks of steam pipes or pipes containing pure liquid water, thanks to a special non-equilibrium mass transfer term that models boiling and condensation.

An easy way to work on your profile data

The use of representative profile models during the design phase of new multiphase projects is critical. LedaFlow includes a group of tools to generate profiles that are suitable for dynamic simulations. These tools include several filtering methods, a simplification tool based on the methodology developed by Erich Zakarian [1] and a an algorithm that can generate a realistic profile when data is missing.

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Profile tools

[1] Zakarian, E., Holm, H., Larrey, D. (2014). “Discretisation, characterisation, complexification of multiphase pipeline elevation profiles”. Proceedings of The 16th International Conference on Multiphase Production technology, Cannes, France, BHR Group: Cranfield, UK, p. 267-282.

Kongsberg offers different commercial models to meet customer requirements. These include: Pay-Per-Day (PPD), lease and perpetual license purchase.