Below is a selection of research and development projects LedaFlow Technologies DA is contributing to.
Please contact us if you want more information or to share ideas for the improvement of LedaFlow and multiphase flow modelling.
“ChemFlow” (PETROMAKS2 project 314165)
Partners: LedaFlow Technologies, SINTEF, Kongsberg Digital, ConocoPhillips, TOTAL, Lundin, Clariant Oil Services
Objective: to provide guidelines for the characterization of complex fluid systems with chemicals and surfactants, and develop new LedaFlow models that will enable accurate simulation of tiebacks transporting fluids with complex chemistry.
Project period: 2020-2023
The project is funded by the Research Council of Norway.
Oil and gas production systems often require the injection of chemicals into the flow to prevent flow assurance complications such as corrosion or formation of scale, wax or hydrates. The presence of chemicals and surfactants can change the flow behaviour drastically, potentially causing severe problems such as flow instabilities, poor separation, foaming, and thus production loss. Multiphase flow predictions that account for effects arising from surface active components would allow more targeted use of chemicals and avoid flow assurance problems. However current multiphase flow models don’t take into account the effect of chemicals properly.
The ambition of the ChemFlow project is to overcome the current limitations of multiphase flow models when it comes to accurately model complex fluid systems with chemicals and surfactants.
Scope of work:
- Conduct multiphase flow experiments with fluids including selected chemicals;
- Develop characterization methods for fluid systems with chemicals;
- Develop and validate new models for LedaFlow.
The project builds on results from the Accurate IPN project (see below) but takes a leap beyond predicting “clean” fluid systems, where the effect from chemicals and surfactants are not taken into account.
“CO2 Flow Assurance for Cost-effective Transport (CO2 FACT) JIP”
Partners: Equinor, Total, Gassco, LedaFlow Technologies, Schlumberger
Objective: LTDA contributes to the CO2 FACT project, with the goal of delivering to the market a LedaFlow software suite capable of performing typical flow assurance simulations required for CO2 pipelines and wells design and operations.
Project period: 2019-2022
The success of full-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects relies on all parts of the system being designed properly. Design of the pipeline transporting CO2 is one of the most important part. Transport of pure CO2 normally takes place in one homogenous phase and the physics is relatively well understood and modelled. In industrial applications however, CO2 is often mixed with small amounts of other substances and present in multiple phases.
The ambition of the CO2 FACT project is to overcome the current limitations of multiphase flow models when it comes to accurately model the complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena that might occur during transport of CO2 with impurities.
Scope of work:
- Perform laboratory experiments to gather data on pure and impure CO2;
- Benchmark and improve existing models;
- Validate the performance of the models.
LedaFlow already includes a general single component module, which will be validated for pure CO2 using experimental data gathered during the CO2 FACT project. The software will then be further developed to support CO2 with impurities. Finally, the accuracy of the LedaFlow simulations will be assessed using data from new experiments.
“ACCURATE multiphase flow predictions for long tiebacks and subsea developments” (PETROMAKS2 project 281881)
Partners: LedaFlow Technologies, SINTEF, Kongsberg Digital, ConocoPhillips, TOTAL.
Objective: improve the LedaFlow models allowing the industry to reduce safety margins, thanks to an increased prediction accuracy of liquid amounts and pressure drop in oil and gas transport systems.
Project period: 2017-2020
The project was funded by the Research Council of Norway.
With the need to produce from deeper and less accessible fields, multiphase flow simulation is critical to ensure a safe and cost-efficient production through long-distance multiphase flow transport. The innovation project ACCURATE was to respond to the need for more accurate tools for simulating transport of unprocessed well stream over large distances.
The ACCURATE project has closed critical model gaps for multiphase flow using new three-phase pipe flow data generated in the multiphase laboratories at SINTEF and at the Institute of Energy Technology (IFE). After thorough testing and validation against field data, new models have been incorporated in the commercial releases of LedaFlow:
- The Slug Capturing 2 model for slug prediction will be released in LedaFlow 2.7 (spring 2021). LedaFlow Slug Capturing is already used by major operators for optimal design of deep-water risers, enabling cost reductions while maintaining operational safety.
A new LedaFlow model reducing uncertainty in the pressure drop predictions for long pipes with gas-dominated flow, thereby reducing the design margins and energy use, has been released in 2019 in LedaFlow 2.5.
Significant improvements in LedaFlow’s ability to simulate oil water interaction. A new model for predicting the interfacial shear stress between oil and water was released in 2020 in LedaFlow 2.6, improving the prediction of water accumulation which is critical for preventing corrosion problems. A new model oil/water regime model will be included in LedaFlow 2.7, enabling accurate prediction of flow resistance and water accumulation in liquid dominated systems.
Improvements in three-phase vertical flows. Based on new data acquired in 2020, the gas entrainment model in LedaFlow has been improved to account for previously unseen three-phase effects, yielding more accurate pressure drop predictions in in near-vertical pipes. These improvements will be included in LedaFlow 2.7.
Related publication(s): J. Kjølaas ; I. E. Smith ; C. Brekken, “Pseudo slug flow in viscous oil systems – experiments and modelling with LedaFlow“, BHR-2018-461.
“Cost effective management of hydrates and wax with LedaFlow®” (Demo 2000 project 259155)
Partners: Total, SINTEF, LedaFlow Technologies, Kongsberg Digital.
Objective: bring to the industry a fundamentally new framework for simulating the effects of hydrates and wax precipitation and transport in multiphase flows.
Project period: 2016-2019
The project was funded by the Research Council of Norway
Low reservoir temperature and high pressures increase the risk of hydrate and wax formation. Today’s concepts for offshore developments in deepwater and arctic regions imply long and costly tie-ins (pipeline and riser insulation, heating systems) and large use of chemicals for hydrate and wax prevention. Moreover, operators need to have complete control over the flow assurance and operational challenges facing such projects in order to ensure a safe and cost efficient production, minimizing the environmental impact related to the use of chemicals.
The hydrate precipitation and the wax deposition are independently well understood, but a comprehensive tool combining this behavior and multiphase flow has been missing for the operators to achieve a good concept selection. Improving this was the purpose of the project “Cost effective management of hydrates and wax with LedaFlow” which ended with the following achievements:
- An experimental campaign was conducted in 2019 to generate data that would improve the understanding and validation of the wax formation model in LedaFlow
- Two new Non-Newtonian viscosity models were implemented in LedaFlow: the Perderson model implemented for wax (LedaFlow 2.3) and the SoFA model for both hydrates and wax (LedaFlow 2.4).
- A new hydrate hold-time option was implemented in LedaFlow 2.6: it allows the user to control the delay before hydrate formation occurs.
- A sand transport model was developed, verified and implemented in LedaFlow 2.6.
Courtesy of Kongsberg Digital
Related publication(s): P. Puente, V. Martinez, V. Richon, J. Morud and N. Zambare, “Wax deposition and hydrate transport dynamic simulations on an oil pipeline – Experiences applying novel models for flow assurance assessment”, ADIPEC 2018.