Below is a selection of R & D projects LTDA is contributing to.

Please contact us if you want more information or to share ideas for the improvement of LedaFlow and multiphase flow modelling.

CO2 Flow Assurance for Cost-effective Transport (CO2 FACT) JIP”


Partners: Equinor, Total, Gassco, LTDA, Schlumberger

Objective: LTDA contributes to the CO2 FACT project, with the goal of delivering to the market a LedaFlow software suite capable of performing typical flow assurance simulations required for CO2 pipelines and wells design and operations.

Project period: 2019-2022

The success of full-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) projects relies on all parts of the system being designed properly. Design of the pipeline transporting CO2 is one of the most important part.

Transport of pure CO2 normally takes place in one homogenous phase and the physics is relatively well understood and modelled. In industrial applications however, CO2 is often mixed with small amounts of other substances and present in multiple phases.

The ambition of the CO2 FACT project is to overcome the current limitations of multiphase flow models when it comes to accurately model the complex thermal-hydraulic phenomena that might occur during transport of CO2 with impurities.

The scope of work of the project can be summarized as such:

  • Perform laboratory experiments to gather data on pure and impure CO2;
  • Benchmark and improve existing models;
  • Validate the performance of the models.

LedaFlow already includes a general single component module, which will be validated for pure CO2 using experimental data gathered during the CO2 FACT project. The software will then be further developed to support CO2 with impurities. Finally, the accuracy of the LedaFlow simulations will be assessed using data from new experiments.

Cost effective management of hydrates and wax with LedaFlow®” (Demo 2000 project 259155)


Partners: Total, SINTEF, LTDA, Kongsberg Digital, The Research Council of Norway

Objective: bring to the industry a fundamentally new framework for simulating the effects of hydrates and wax precipitation and transport in multiphase flows.

Project period: 2016-2019

Low reservoir temperature and high pressures increase the risk of hydrate and wax formation. Today’s concepts for offshore developments in deepwater and arctic regions imply long and costly tie-ins (pipeline and riser insulation, heating systems) and large use of chemicals for hydrate and wax prevention.

Operators need to have complete control over the flow assurance and operational challenges facing such projects in order to ensure a safe and cost efficient production, minimizing the environmental impact related to the use of chemicals.

The hydrate precipitation and the wax deposition are independently well understood, but a comprehensive tool combining this behaviour and multiphase flow has been missing for the operators to achieve a good concept selection.

The scope of work of the project is based on the following items:

  • Release of the preliminary models for hydrate transport and wax deposition;
  • Benchmark and improvement;
  • Pilot study (demo of the application);
  • Validation of models; use of the framework in online models supporting operations 24/7;

LedaFlow offers the best available technology for simulating temperature sensitive processes such as hydrate and wax precipitation taking into account the effect of inhibitor injection. The custom fluid feature can be used to model hydrate and wax dispersions and the non-Newtonian behaviour of the transporting fluid. This project will be followed by the implementation of sand transport modelling.

Courtesy of Kongsberg Digital

Related publication(s): Puente P, Martinez V, Richon V, Morud J and Zambare N, “Wax deposition and hydrate transport dynamic simulations on an oil pipeline – Experiences applying novel models for flow assurance assessment”, ADIPEC 2018.

ACCURATE multiphase flow predictions for long tiebacks and subsea developments” (PETROMAKS2 project 281881)


Partners: LTDA, SINTEF, ConocoPhillips, Total, The Research Council of Norway

Objective: improve the LedaFlow models allowing the industry to reduce safety margins, thanks to an increased prediction accuracy of liquid amounts and pressure drop in oil and gas transport systems.

Project period: 2018-2020

With the need to produce from deeper and less accessible fields, multiphase flow simulation has proven to be critical to ensure a safe and cost-efficient production through long-distance multiphase flow transport.

This new project will close the most critical model gaps for multiphase flow using new three-phase pipe flow data generated in the multiphase laboratories at SINTEF and at the Institute of Energy Technology (IFE). High-quality data on velocity profiles, local phase fractions and droplet sizes, will allow more rigorous and detailed closure laws.

The scope of work of the project will address the following modelling activities:

  • Wall-wetting in three-phase gas dominated flow;
  • Oil-water interaction;
  • Transient flows.

After thorough testing and validation the new models will be incorporated in the commercial releases of the multiphase simulation software LedaFlow.